Human Embryonic Stem Cells Do Not Change Their X Inactivation Status during Differentiation.

Journal: 
Cell Rep
Publication Year: 
2017
Authors: 
Sanjeet Patel
Giancarlo Bonora
Anna Sahakyan
Rachel Kim
Constantinos Chronis
Justin Langerman
Sorel Fitz-Gibbon
Liudmilla Rubbi
Rhys J P Skelton
Reza Ardehali
Matteo Pellegrini
William E Lowry
Amander T Clark
Kathrin Plath
PubMed link: 
27989715
Public Summary: 
Applications of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) require faithful chromatin changes during differentiation, but the fate of the X chromosome state in differentiating ESCs is unclear. Female human ESC lines either carry two active X chromosomes (XaXa), an Xa and inactive X chromosome with or without XIST RNA coating (XiXIST+Xa;XiXa), or an Xa and an eroded Xi (XeXa) where the Xi no longer expresses XIST RNA and has partially reactivated. Here, we established XiXa, XeXa, and XaXa ESC lines and followed their X chromosome state during differentiation. Surprisingly, we found that the X state pre-existing in primed ESCs is maintained in differentiated cells. Consequently, differentiated XeXa and XaXa cells lacked XIST, did not induce X inactivation, and displayed higher X-linked gene expression than XiXa cells. These results demonstrate that X chromosome dosage compensation is not required for ESC differentiation. Our data imply that XiXIST+Xa ESCs are most suited for downstream applications and show that all other X states are abnormal byproducts of our ESC derivation and propagation method.
Scientific Abstract: 
Applications of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) require faithful chromatin changes during differentiation, but the fate of the X chromosome state in differentiating ESCs is unclear. Female human ESC lines either carry two active X chromosomes (XaXa), an Xa and inactive X chromosome with or without XIST RNA coating (XiXIST+Xa;XiXa), or an Xa and an eroded Xi (XeXa) where the Xi no longer expresses XIST RNA and has partially reactivated. Here, we established XiXa, XeXa, and XaXa ESC lines and followed their X chromosome state during differentiation. Surprisingly, we found that the X state pre-existing in primed ESCs is maintained in differentiated cells. Consequently, differentiated XeXa and XaXa cells lacked XIST, did not induce X inactivation, and displayed higher X-linked gene expression than XiXa cells. These results demonstrate that X chromosome dosage compensation is not required for ESC differentiation. Our data imply that XiXIST+Xa ESCs are most suited for downstream applications and show that all other X states are abnormal byproducts of our ESC derivation and propagation method.