Development of a Stem Cell-based Transplantation Strategy for Treating Age-related Macular Degeneration

Development of a Stem Cell-based Transplantation Strategy for Treating Age-related Macular Degeneration

Funding Type: 
Early Translational I
Grant Number: 
TR1-01272
Award Value: 
$5,487,136
Disease Focus: 
Vision Loss
Stem Cell Use: 
Adult Stem Cell
iPS Cell
Status: 
Closed
Public Abstract: 
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Progress Report: 

Year 1

The broad goal of this project is to develop a stem-cell derived replacement for RPE cells in the eye that die in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since RPE cells are often genetically defective in AMD, we will correct this defect in the stem-cell derived RPE cells before transplanting them into patients. These transplanted cells will express specific proteins that will protect them from being attacked by the innate immune system. During the first year of funding we made excellent progress toward this goal. We learned how to generate RPE cells from mouse and human stem cells of various sources. We prepared all the DNA constructs that will be required to protect the transplanted RPE cells from attack by the innate immune system. We also developed a new approach for injecting RPE cells into the correct part of the mouse eye (subretinal space) without damaging other parts of the retina. We are enthusiastic to continue our work on this exciting project.

Year 2

The broad goal of this project is to develop a stem-cell derived replacement for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in the eye, which die in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since RPE cells are often genetically defective in AMD, we will correct this defect in the stem-cell derived RPE cells before transplanting them into patients. These transplanted cells will express specific proteins that will protect them from being attacked by the innate immune system. During our second year of funding, we transplanted human stem-cell derived RPE cells into the eyes of mice that are blind due to a genetic defect in the rpe65 gene. We showed that the human cells integrated into the RPE layer of these mice. Further, we demonstrated that the transplanted cells partially rescued the blindness in rpe65 / mice. We also generated and tested the recombinant viruses that will protect RPE cells from attack by the innate immune system. We are on schedule to complete the planned studies for this project during the final year of funding.

Year 3

This project is to develop a new treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells into the subretinal space of a patient’s eyes. These RPE cells are induced from stem cells collected from the same patient, to avoid the problem of immune rejection. AMD is primarily an inflammatory disorder caused by inappropriate attack of RPE cells by the complement system. Accordingly, negative regulators of complement activation will be expressed in the stem-cell derived RPE cells by viral transduction. We explored two sources of stem cells that can be collected from a patient: embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin fibroblasts. We successfully programed these stem cells into fully functional RPE cells. Our team has extensive experience with the biochemistry and cell biology of the RPE. We used “knockout” mouse models with mutations in RPE genes to test the efficiency of RPE-cell transplantation. Next, we planned to test the strategy of protecting RPE cells from complement attack by over-expressing complement negative-regulatory factors. We tested the long-term viability of induced RPE cells, and rule-out tumorgenicity by transplanting these cells into the eyes of severe-combined immunodeficient mice.

© 2013 California Institute for Regenerative Medicine