Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Remyelination in a Viral Model of Demyelination

Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Remyelination in a Viral Model of Demyelination

Funding Type: 
SEED Grant
Grant Number: 
RS1-00409
Award Value: 
$368,081
Disease Focus: 
Multiple Sclerosis
Neurological Disorders
Immune Disease
Stem Cell Use: 
Embryonic Stem Cell
Status: 
Closed
Public Abstract: 
Statement of Benefit to California: 
Progress Report: 

Year 1

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that results in demyelination and axonal loss, culminating in extensive disability through defects in neurologic function. The demyelination that defines MS pathology is progressive over time; however, studies indicate that myelin repair can occur during the course of disease in patients with MS and in animal models designed to mimic the immunopathogenesis of MS. While it is generally thought that endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are largely responsible for spontaneous remyelination, it is unclear why these cells are only able to transiently induce myelin repair in the presence of ongoing disease. Along these lines, two therapies for demyelinating diseases look promising; implanting OPCs into sites of neuroinflammation that are directly capable of inducing remyelination of the damaged axons and/or modifying the local environment to stimulate and support remyelination by endogenous OPCs. Indeed, we have shown that human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocytes surgically implanted into the spinal cords of mice with virally induced demyelination promoted focal remyelination and axonal sparing. We are currently investigating how the implanted OPCs positionally migrate to areas of on-going demyelination and the role these cells play in repairing the damaged CNS. The purpose of this research is to identify the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for hESC-induced remyelination.

Year 2

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are important in mediating remyelination in response to demyelinating lesions. As such, OPCs represent an attractive cell population for use in cell replacement therapies to promote remyelination for treatment of human demyelinating diseases. High-purity OPCs have been generated from hESC and have been shown to initiate remyelination associated with improved motor skills in animal models of demyelination. We have previously determined that engraftment of hESC-derived OPCs into mice with established demyelination does not significantly improve clinical recovery nor reduce the severity of demyelination. Importantly, remyelination is limited following OPC transplantation. These findings highlight that the microenvironment is critical with regards to the remyelination potential of engrafted cells. In addition, we have determined that human OPCs are capable of migrating in response to proinflammatory molecules often associated with human neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. This is an important observation in that it will likely be necessary for engrafted OPCs to be able to positionally navigate within tissue in order to move from the site of surgical transplantation to areas of damage to initiate repair and tissue remodeling. Finally, we have also made a novel discovery of a unique signaling pathway that protects OPCs from damage/death in response to treatment with proinflammatory cytokines. We believe this is an important and translationally relevant observation as OPCs are critical in contributing to remyelination and remyelination failure is an important clinical feature for many human demyelinating diseases inclusing spinal cord injury and MS. We have identified a putative protective ligand/receptor interaction affords protection from cytokine-induced apoptosis. These findings may reveal novel avenues for therapeutic intervention to prevent damage/death of OPCs and enhance remyelination.

© 2013 California Institute for Regenerative Medicine